PakistanThe area around the Indus River has always been strategically important, being the crossroads of South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. It was the site of several ancient cultures including the Neolithic Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilization (2800-1800 BCE). Later it was part of numerous empires such as the Achaemenid Empire, the Umayyad Caliphate, the Mongol Empire, the Moghul Empire, and the British Empire.
Greeks, Persians, Indians, Arabs - Buddhists, Hindus, Christians, Sikhs, and finally Muslims all left their marks on the area. The Moghuls introduced Persian literature and high culture, establishing the roots of Indo-Persian civilization in the region. With the fading of their empire in the 18th century, the British East India Company became the dominating power in all of India. Pakistan gained independence in 1947; in 1956 it was proclaimed an Islamic Republic.
Persia meets India: Cultural Highlights of Pakistan